How to grow hazelnuts, what are the appropriate climate and soil conditions, how can we get more yield from hazelnut ?
The region with the most suitable climate feature in terms of hazelnut growing in Turkey is the Black Sea coastal region.
Hazelnut production in Turkey is based on very old. Hazelnut has a very important contribution to the economy and continues to be the traditional export product in the country.
Climate and Soil Demands
The good development of hazelnut and its abundant product occur in humid, moderate climatic regions. The Black Sea coastal region has the most suitable climate feature in terms of hazelnut growing. Although hazelnuts can be grown in semi-humid, arid climatic regions, insufficient rainfall requires absolute watering.
Hazelnut can be grown economically up to 60 km inland and 750 m in height in the Black Sea Region. In the regions where the average annual temperature is 13-16 ° C, hazelnuts are grown most appropriately. In addition, the lowest temperature in these regions should not exceed -8, -10 ° C and the highest temperature should not exceed 36-37 ° C, the total annual precipitation should be above 700 mm and the distribution of precipitation to months should be balanced. In addition, the relative humidity in June and July should not fall below 60%.
As hazelnut is a culture plant with fringe root, its roots do not go too deep and can reach a depth of 80 cm in inclined lands. Although it is not very selective as soil requirements, it shows good development in loamy-humus and deep soils rich in nutrients.
Hazelnut Growing Technique
Soil preparation should be done carefully before planting hazelnuts. Hazelnut has a very long economic life.
The properties of the soil to be produced for hazelnuts should be analyzed a year ago and necessary studies should be carried out for proper cultivation.
Soil-Water Conservation Measures in flat plots
For the hazelnut garden to be established, soil leveling to be applied on flat lands is easier than on sloping lands, but some different applications are made depending on the low and high ceiling water.
Soil-Water Protection Measures in Sloped Lands
In order to make cultural applications such as pruning and fertilizing easier in the lands with more than 5% slope, the terrain should be terraced. One of the following terracing systems is applied depending on the slope of the land:
Canal Terraces: In cases where the slope of the land is 5-25%, this terrace shape is applied.
Trench Terraces: If the slope of the land is between 25-75%, a ditch terrace system is applied.
Mobile Terraces: Mobile terraces are applied on the lands where the slope of the land is more than 75% and other terrace system cannot be applied.
Selection of Saplings and Preparation for Planting
Hazelnut is a plant that forms stool. The following characteristics should be sought in root shoots suitable for the purpose:
The hearths should have sun-exposed, rotten, disease-free and 1-2-old root shoots
They should have root shoots with well-formed buds.
There should be root shoots, which are well rooted and develop in places not close to the hearth.
After selecting the stool with these properties, they should be removed with hoe without damaging the roots. "Planting Pruning" should be done before planting these stool. For this, injured, bruised and damaged roots should be cut from the solid tissue point, the longer roots should be shortened,These seedlings should be planted in the planting pits that were prepared before, without waiting.
Pruning, which starts with shaping the seedlings in planting, is one of the most important practices that provide positive results in annual growing, increasing yield and extending life of hazelnut until end of era of economic efficiency. With pruning;
In planting, seedlings are shaped and this shape is maintained.
Every year, a large number of long root shoots are created to obtain abundant and quality products.
Over-growing branches are prevented from intermingling, making maintenance, agricultural warfare and harvesting easier.
Diseases, the elderly, dry, black cards and the branches and twigs heading towards the hearth are removed and the hearths gain a wide crown.
With the removal of foreign trees in the hazelnut, the efficiency decrease that will occur without shading is prevented.
Hazelnut, which has a high tendency to give roots, is prevented from exploiting the nutrients by cleaning root shoots every year.
In general, the pruning time of hazelnuts is Autumn months. Pruning of hazelnuts should be started by taking into account the period when vegetation stops and the leaves are mostly shed.
The tools used in pruning are as follows.
Root Shoot Cleaning
The tendency of hazelnuts to give root exile is very high. They grow abundantly on the roots of the main branches every year. These developing root shoots are common to the nutrient of the hearth, causing the branches to tighten, preventing aeration and sunbathing. For these reasons, the root shoots developing by keeping the number of the main branches planted during the production period should be cleaned at least twice a year, at least twice a year, in autumn and early May. However, if the dried, broken, diseased and aging branches are removed during the production period, one of the root shoots growing in the direction of the vacant branch is left and developed. Thus, the branches of the vacated branches are filled.
Fertilization is of great importance in hazelnut cultivation in order for hazelnut seedlings to develop healthily from the planting, to show good crowning and to yield quality products after laying down on yield.
The benefit expected from fertilization is possible by determining which nutrient is deficient in the soil and the degree of deficiency. Soil and leaf analysis must be done in determining the nutrients that are needed in order for hazelnuts to show a normal development both in new plantings and in gardens in the age of yield.
Fertilization in New Planting Hazelnut Farms
In order to enrich the soil with organic material, the recommended amounts of lime sapling pits should be distributed homogenously and deeply plowed before opening 3-5 tons of farm fertilizer per decare and soil analysis results. Also, as basic fertilization, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers should be mixed in the varieties and amounts recommended to seedlings pits before planting.
After this basic fertilization before planting, from the first year to the fifth year, 40 g per tree sapling per year. It should be given around seedlings in a uniform manner and be hoeing. In this way, the annual growth of necessary shoots can be provided in hazelnut seedlings made in the first 5 years.
Fertilization of Hazelnut Farms in Yield Age
It is possible for hazelnuts to develop normally and to provide abundant products with nutrients it receives from the soil. The most important of these nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. Although other nutrients are also very important for nuts, they are not as important as previous nutrients.
Hazelnut plant can be obtained in soils with a pH of 5-7. However, the Black Sea region, where hazelnut cultivation is made, is generally acidic. This causes lime deficiency in the soil. Lime deficiency in the soil leads to early yellowing of the leaves, drying of the shoots, weak root formation and lack of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
Harvesting, Blending and Storage of Hazelnuts
Before starting the harvest, a general cleaning should be done in hazelnut gardens. The garden should be cleaned at least 5-10 days before harvest. It is understood by looking at some characteristics that the hazelnuts are at harvest maturity. These:
Your zurufs turn yellow and red.
Begins to play in the flesh of hazelnuts.
Fruit skin turns red.
When the branches carrying strong and plump fruits are shaken, spilling most of the fruits indicates that the hazelnut has reached the harvest maturity.
The best way to harvest nuts is to collect them from the ground. As hazelnut is picking in this harvest form in the full harvest period, it becomes more efficient and quality. In addition, the buds that will form the crop of the next year are not damaged. The harvest method used more in the region is to collect manually from the branch. The most important point to be considered in this harvest method is that the branches do not rub together.
The hazelnuts collected in the baskets are transported to the threshing areas by means of 30-40 kg baskets called harar, selek and hey according to the regions or by filling them in sacks. In the region, threshing areas are generally flat or slightly inclined meadows and hard soil.
Hazelnuts, which are blended, are kept for 3-5 days in bulk. Then it is laid with a rake into the threshing field in a layer of 10-15 cm thick. It is mixed with wooden shovel or rake in sunny weather every day and dried for 3-5 days. These hazelnuts, which are dried to a certain extent, are separated from their slag by giving them to the hazelnut sorting machine, which is called Patoz.
These hazelnuts are laid out using a cloth in soil blends, and 2-4 cm thick without using a cloth in concrete blends. In sunny weather, they are mixed with rake 2-3 times every day and dried. Hazelnuts, which are dried for 3-4 days in this way, are separated from dust, soil, slag pieces and cavities by passing them through the fan. Hazelnuts cleaned in this way are laid back to the blend, and hard and foreign objects such as stones and soil are removed.
The place to be used as a warehouse should be cool, dry and breathable. In these conditions, hazelnuts can be preserved for a maximum of 1 year without spoiling their properties. The temperature must be between 2-4.5 C and relative humidity between 55-60% for preservation for more than 1 year. The increase in heat causes pain and increase in relative humidity and mold.